News & Events
- New Publication: Apple, A., Ryals, A., Alpert, K., Wagner, L., Cella, D., Penedo, F., Voss, J., Wang, L.. Subtle hippocampal deformities in breast cancer survivors with reduced episodic memory and self-reported cognitive concerns. NeuroImage: Clinical 2017; 14:685-691
- New Publication: Lewis-de los Angeles CP, Williams PL, Huo Y, Wang SD, Uban KA, Kathleen MMH, Yogev MR, Csernansky JG, Nichols S, Dyke RBV, Sowell ER, Wang L, PHACS, and PING. Lower Total and Regional Grey Matter Brain Volumes in Youth with Perinatally-Acquired HIV Infection: Associations with HIV Disease Severity, Substance Use, and Cognition. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2017; in press
- New Publication: Mamah, D., Alpert, K.I., Barch, D.M., Csernansky, J.G., Wang, L.. Subcortical neuromorphometry in schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. Neuroimage Clin 2016; 11:276-286
- New Publication: Cobia, D.J., Smith, M.J., Salinas, I., Ng, C., Gado, M., Csernansky, J.G., Wang, L.. Progressive deterioration of thalamic nuclei relates to cortical network decline in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2016; Sep
- New Publication: C. Paula Lewis-de los Angeles; Kathryn I. Alpert; Paige L. Williams; Kathleen Malee; Yanling Huo; John G. Csernansky; Ram Yogev; Russell B. Van Dyke; Elizabeth R. Sowell; Lei Wang; for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). Deformed subcortical structures are related to past HIV disease severity in youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2016; 5:S6-S14
- New Grant:
NSF: SP0037646 National Science Foundation (PI: Pestilli, MPI: Wang, Saykin, Sporns) - BD Spokes: SPOKE: MIDWEST: Collaborative: Advanced Computational Neuroscience Network
(ACNN) (09/01/2016 - 08/31/2019).
- New Grant: NIBIB: 1R01EB020062-01A1 NIBIB (Neurodegenerative and Neurodevelopmental Subcortical Shape Diffeomorphometry Software) (PI: Miller, MPI: Paulsen, Mostfosky, Wang) - Neurodegenerative and Neurodevelopmental Subcortical Shape Diffeomorphometry Software (09/01/2015 - 08/31/2019).
- New Grant: NICHD: 1 R01 HL122328 NHLBI/NICHD (PI: Wang, Miller) - Childhood Origins of CHD Disparities: Neural & Immune Pathways (11/01/2014 - 08/31/2019).
- New Grant: NICHD: NRSA F30: Cortical thickness, subcortical deformation, and structural covariance networks in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV: associations with HIV disease severity and cognition (PI: de los Angeles) - C. Paula Lewis-de los Angeles was awarded an NRSA F30 Predoctoral Fellowship for MD/PhD students from the NIH Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The project focuses on characterizing brain morphology and networks in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV using neuroimaging. The fellowship will support research and clinical training. (09/23/2016 - 09/23/2018).
- C. Paula Lewis-de los Angeles won first place for Best G3 poster at the 2016 Annual Northwestern University Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) Retreat Poster Session.: C. Paula Lewis-de los Angeles won first place for best judged poster at the 2016 Annual Northwestern University Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) Retreat Poster Session. Poster title: "Grey matter differences in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV: a cross-sectional neuroimaging study."
- C. Paula Lewis-de los Angeles was awarded a 2016 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) Travel Award.: C. Paula Lewis-de los Angeles was awarded a Trainee Travel Award for the 2016 Annual Meeting of the ACNP (Hollywood, Florida, December 4-8, 2016). This meeting brings together basic and clinical scientists in the field of psychiatric research and is an opportunity to see the latest advances in the field.
- C. Paula de los Angeles was selected to participate in Neurohackweek 2016.: Neurohackweek is a 5-day hands-on workshop in neuroimaging and data science, held at the University of Washington eScience Institute (Seattle, WA, September 5-9, 2016). Morning sessions will be devoted to hands-on lectures (data visualization, data science, open data sets, image processing, machine learning, and reproducible pipelines) and afternoon sessions will be devoted to hackathons and breakout sessions.
- New Grant: NCI: The role of the hippocampal-prefrontal network in cancer-related cognitive impairment; a multimodal cross sectional study (PI: Apple) - Alexandra Apple was awarded an NRSA F31 Predoctoral Fellowship from the National Cancer Institute. Her project investigates the role of the hippocampal-prefrontal network in cognitive impairment due to cancer and its treatments using structural and functional imaging data. (07/01/2016 - 06/30/2018).
- C. Paula de los Angeles was appointed a Dr. John N. Nicholson Fellow at Northwestern Univeristy for the 2016-2017 academic year.: The Dr. John N. Nicholson Fellowship provides financial support for outstanding Northwestern graduate students enrolled in PhD programs in the sciences, engineering, and management.
- C. Paula de los Angeles was awarded funding to attend the 2016 fMRI Training Course at University of Michigan.: C Paula de los Angeles was accepted into the NIH-funded University of Michigan fMRI training course directed by John Jonides, PhD. The training program will span two weeks from August 8th-19th 2016 and include topics on MR physics, study design, fMR signal processing, and network analysis.
- Mar 9, 2016, Commentary on "EXERCISE BOOSTS BRAIN ACTIVITY": Maddock RJ, Casazza GA, Fernandez DH, Maddock MI. Acute Modulation of Cortical Glutamate and GABA Content by Physical Activity. J Neurosci. 2016 Feb 24;36(8):2449-57.
- New publication: Schroeder, M.P., Weiss, C., Procissi, D., Wang, L., Disterhoft, J.F., 2016. Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) and functional MRI in awake rabbits during somatosensory stimulation. Neuroimage 126, 72-80.
- New publication: Schroeder, M.P., Weiss, C., Procissi, D., Disterhoft, J.F., Wang, L., 2016. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit. Neuroimage 129, 260-267.
- Oct 22, 2015, Research reported by Oncology Nurse Advisor: Under-Recruitment of Brain Regions May be Linked With Postchemotherapy Cognitive Impairment
- Nov 10 2015, SchizConnect reported by Medical Xpress: Database translates schizophrenia research into one 'language'
- Nov 11 2015, SchizConnect reported by Medical News Today (United Kingdom): Database translates schizophrenia research into one 'language'
- New Publication: Schroeder, M.P., Weiss, C., Procissi, D., Disterhoft, J.F., Wang, L., 2015 (accepted). Intrinsic Connectivity of Neural Networks in the Awake Rabbit. Neuroimage.
- Jan 14, 2016: SchizConnect spotlighted by Schizophrenia Research Forum: SchizConnect Integrates Neuroimaging Data
- New Publication: Kogan A, Alpert K, Ambite JL, Marcus DS, Wang L. Northwestern University schizophrenia data sharing for SchizConnect: A longitudinal dataset for large-scale integration. NeuroImage 2016; 124:1196-1201
- New Publication: Alpert K, Kogan A, Parrish T, Marcus D, Wang L.. The Northwestern University Neuroimaging Data Archive (NUNDA). NeuroImage 2016; 124:1131-1136
- New Publication: Wang, L., Alpert, K.I., Calhoun, V.D., Cobia, D.J., Keator, D.B., King, M.D., Kogan, A., Landis, D., Tallis, M., Turner, M.D., Potkin, S.G., Turner, J.A., Ambite, J.L.. 2015. SchizConnect: Mediating neuroimaging databases on schizophrenia and related disorders for large-scale integration. Neuroimage 2016; 124:1155-1167
- New Presentation: Invited talk: Long-term Effects of Perinatally-acquired HIV on the Subcortical Shape of The Adolescent Brain: Lei Wang. PHACS 2015 Fall Network Meeting (Bethesda, MD -- 10 2015)
- New publication highlighted by the journal Cancer: Wang L*, Apple AC*, Schroeder MP, Ryals AJ, Voss JL, Gitelman D, Sweet JJ, Butt Z, Cella D, Wagner LI, Reduced Prefrontal Activation During Working and Long-Term Memory Tasks and Impaired Patient-Reported Cognition Among Cancer Survivors Post-chemotherapy Compared With Healthy Controls. Cancer 2015; 21 (* co-first author)
- New Presentation: Long-term Effects of Perinatally-acquired HIV on the Subcortical Shape of The Adolescent Brain: Lei Wang. PHACS 2015 Fall Network Meeting (Bethesda, MD -- -- 10 2015)
- New Publication: Coccaro EF, Lee R, McCloskey M, Csernansly JG, Wang L. Morphometric analysis of amygdala and hippocampus shape in impulsively aggressive and healthy control subjects. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2015; accepted
- C. Paula de los Angeles was awarded a Young Investigator Award by the International Antiviral Society-USA for the 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI).: Paula will present her research on perinatally-acquired HIV infection on the adolescent brain at CROI. CROI is the preeminent HIV research meeting in the world and attracts more than 4,000 HIV/AIDS research leaders internationally.
- New Publication: Wang L*, Apple AC*, Schroeder MP, Ryals AJ, Voss JL, Gitelman D, Sweet JJ, Butt Z, Cella D, Wagner LI, Reduced Prefrontal Activation During Working and Long-Term Memory Tasks and Impaired Patient-Reported Cognition Among Cancer Survivors Post-chemotherapy Compared With Healthy Controls. Cancer 2015; 21
- C. Paula de los Angeles was awarded an NIH fellowship to study at the 2015 Summer Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience in Santa Barbara, California.: Christine Paula de los Angeles was awarded an NIH fellowship to study at the 2015 Summer Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience in Santa Barbara, California directed by George R. Mangun PhD. Week 1 topics include signal processing, white matter pathways, modeling neurons (Course Director: Brian Wandell). Week 2 topics include genetics and imaging and neuroimaging in developmental populations (Course Director: Susan Bookheimer, PhD).
- Matthew Schroeder awarded Ph. D. in Neuroscience: Matthew P Schroeder successfully defended his thesis work on May 18th, 2015 entitled "Utilizing Rabbits for MRI Studies: Contrast-enhanced Imaging, Intrinsic Connectivity Networks, and Optimal Pretrial Brain States". His co-advisors are John F. Disterhoft and Lei Wang.
- C. Paula de los Angeles was awarded an MSTP Travel Award to present at the 2015 Cognitive Neuroscience Society meeting.: Preliminary Analysis of Contralesional Hemisphere Hippocampal Volume and Cortical Thickness as a Predictor for Survival in a subset of Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients. de los Angeles, CP, Alpert, KI, Jacobs, J, Rademaker, AW, Raizer, JJ, Swanson, KR, Wang, L. Cognitive Neuroscience Society (San Francisco, CA -- March 2015)
- Alexandra Apple presented at INS 2015: Apple AC, Ryals AJ, Voss JL, Wang L. Hippocampal deformation in Breast Cancer Patients with Self Reported Cognitive Concerns. The 43rd Annual Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society. Denver, CO; 2015.
- Veronika Hanko, a second-year medical student, was quoted in a Feinberg article.:
At a poster session on November 21, second-year medical students shared the results of their research projects for the Area of Scholarly Concentration, a four-year longitudinal project that culminates with a thesis at the end of their fourth year. Projects spanned departments: from the basic sciences to clinical investigation, including translational medicine, medical humanities and more.
Veronika presented a poster on examining the hippocampus of post-mortem patients to identify subtle changes in brain shapes.
- Sep 2014, Dr. Wang presented SchizConnect at NIMH:
SchizConnect: Large-Scale Schizophrenia Neuroimaging Data Integration and Sharing
Lei Wang, Jose Luis Ambite, Jessica Turner, Steven Potkin NIMH (NIMH, Bethesda, MA -- Sep 2014)
- Suhong Jin was selected as a finalist for the Northwestern Fletcher Prize for Summer Undergraduate Research: Suhong Jin, a NU undergraduate majoring in Computer Science and minoring in Chemistry at the McCormick School of Engineering, was selected as a finalist for the Fletcher URG Prize, an award for the most outstanding Summer URG projects. Suhong received the URG, which funded the top students across the University, to carry out his project, "Early Diagnostics of Alzheimer’s Disease Using MRI Analysis Techniques," in the summer of 2014 with Dr. Wang.
- C. Paula de los Angeles, MD/PhD student, was awarded funding through the NIH T32 Training Program in the Neuroscience of Human Cognition: This predoctoral fellowship will support Paula's research for her interdisciplinary joint thesis in the laboratories of Professor Lei Wang (Neuroimaging and Applied Computational Anatomy Lab) and Professor Kristin Swanson (Mathematical Neuro-Oncology Lab). In her thesis, Paula plans to use magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural capacity and functional recovery in the setting of injury; specifically, the ability of the brain to recover/remodel in long-term glioblastoma multiforme (brain tumor) patients.
- New publications to appear in November 2014:
The following papers will appear in the Neurobiology of Aging November 2014 Special Issue on Novel Imaging Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, guest editors: Lei Wang, Paul Yushkevich, Sebastien Ourselin:
Khan AR, Beg MF, Wang L. Unified Voxel and Tensor-based Morphometry (UVTBM) using Registration Confidence. Neurobiology of Aging. 2014.
Ming J, Harms MP, Morris JC, Beg MF, Wang L. Integrated Cortical Structural Marker for Alzheimer's Disease. Neurobiology of Aging. 2014.
Raamana PR, Weiner MW, Wang L, Beg MF. Thickness Network (ThickNet) Features for Prognostic Applications in Dementia. Neurobiology of Aging. 2014.
Wang, L., Yushkevich, P., & Ourselin, S. (2014). Guest Editorial. Neurobiology of Aging. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.09.021
- NUIT eCommunicator Summer 2014 "Northwestern Supports Researchers in Search of Big Data Solutions": NIACAL software developer, Kate Alpert, describes the challenges of working with big data and her experience at the Virtual School of Computational Science and Engineering (VSCSE) Data Intensive Summer School hosted by the University of Chicago Research Computing Center, in partnership with Northwestern University.
- Northwestern University Undergraduate Research Grant Awarded: Suhong Jin, a sophomore majoring in Computer Science and minoring in Chemistry at the McCormick School of Engineering, is awarded a Northwestern University Summer Undergraduate Research Grant, for his project "Early Diagnostics of Alzheimer’s Disease Using MRI Analysis Techniques." Suhong will carry out this project in the summer of 2014 with Dr. Wang.
- Awarded funding to attend fMRI Training Course at University of Michigan: Alexandra was accepted into the NIH-funded University of Michigan fMRI training course directed by John Jonides, PhD. The training program will span two weeks from August 4th-15th 2014, and include topics on MR physics, study design, fMR signal processing, and network analysis.
- New publication: Williams, K.A., Mehta, N.S., Redei, E.E., Wang, L., Procissi, D., Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity in a genetic rat model of depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2014
- Invited presentation at Mathematical Biosciences Institute, The Ohio State University: "Multimodal Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Neuropsychiatric Disorders," Workshop 3: Integrating Modalities and Scales in Life Science Imaging.
- NUIT eCommunicator Fall 2013: Getting a Mental Image: Harnessing the Power of Quest to Diagnose Brain Diseases.
- New publication: Alton C. Williams, Marie E. McNeely, Deanna J. Greene, Jessica A. Church , Stacie L. Warren , Johanna M. Hartlein, Bradley L. Schlaggar , Kevin J. Black, Lei Wang, A pilot study of basal ganglia and thalamus structure by high dimensional mapping in children with Tourette syndrome [v1; ref status: awaiting peer review, http://f1000r.es/1yu] , F1000Research 2013; 2:207 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.2-207.v1)
- New publication: Wang, Lei, Alexander Kogan, Derin Cobia, Kathryn Alpert, Anthony Kolasny, Michael I. Miller, Daniel Marcus, Northwestern University Schizophrenia Data and Software Tool (NUSDAST), Frontiers in Neuroinformatics 2013; 7:25
- Matthew Schroeder awarded Society for Neuroscience Next Generation Award: Matthew, along with Shoai Hattori and Jessica Wilson from the Northwestern University Interdepartmental Neuroscience (NUIN) program, will be awarded the Next Generation Award at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience (SfN) Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA. The award recognizes SfN chapter members who have made outstanding contributions to public communication, outreach, and education about neuroscience. The three have been instrumental in establishing the Brain Awareness Outreach organization at Northwestern by holding an annual Brain Fair in Chicago as well as a teacher's workshop and a 6 week outreach program at a local middle school highlighting the neuroscience of superheroes.
- NU Media Coverage - Lei Wang Leading Creation of National Neuroimaging Database: SchizConnect is an ambitious, four-year, multisite venture meant to overcome limitations in data sharing amongst the schizophrenia neuroimaging research community.
- New publication: Johnson, S. L., Wang, L., Alpert, K. I., Greenstein, D., Clasen, L., Lalonde, F., Miller, R., Rapoport, J., and Gogtay, N., 2013, Hippocampal shape abnormalities of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings: J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, v. 52, p. 527-536 e2.
- New publication:
Mehta, N. S., Wang, L., and Redei, E. E., 2013, Sex differences in depressive, anxious behaviors and hippocampal transcript levels in a genetic rat model: Genes Brain Behav.
- June 2013: Neha Mehta Awarded Funding to Attend "Statistical Methods in Functional Genomics" course at Cold Spring Harbor: Neha was accepted and awarded partial funding to attend this Cold Spring Harbor Course which took place from June 21 - July 3, 2013. The focus of the course was on the statistical methods used for high-throughput genetic assays. The R environment was utilized for all statistical work. Topics included: Introduction to Bioconductor, Expression profiling using RNA-Seq and microarrays, DNA methylation profiling analysis, Predictive modeling of gene regulatory networks using machine learning, and Integration of results from multiple experimental methods.
- May 2013: Neha Mehta Awarded Travel Award for the International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society Annual Meeting in Leuven, Belgium: Neha was selected for a travel award to present her work titled "Behavioral and transcriptomic sex differences, despite identical genetics, in a rat model of depression" at the annual meeting of the International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society (IBANGS). The meeting was held in Leuven, Belgium from May 21st-24th.
- Jun 2013 Dr. Wang Co-Organizes Hippocampal Subfield Segmentation Summit (HS3): The Hippocampal Subfield Segmentation Summit (HS3) is an informal workshop for those who either develop or use subfield segmentation protocols and high resolution imaging of the hippocampus. The first HS3 meeting (HS3.1) was held on June 21-22, 2013 at the University of California, Davis.
- Mar 2013, Dr. Wang Awarded NIMH-Funded Project (U01) on SchizConnect: Large-Scale Schizophrenia Neuroimaging Data Mediation & Federation: This 4 year project will create a data mediation and integration resource to overcome limitations in large-scale data sharing and integration in state-of-the-art schizophrenia research in a low-cost manner and deliver a web portal to interact with the federated databases. The principal investigators are: Lei Wang, PhD (contact PI), Jose Luis Ambite, Ph.D., Research Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the University of Southern California, Steven G. Potkin, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Irvine, Jessica Turner, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Translational Neuroscience at The Mind Research Network (MRN).
- July 2013 Adam Christensen awarded Travel Fellowship for the Alzheimer’s Imaging Consortium: Third-year Clinical Psychology Ph.D. student Adam Christensen was selected as a Travel Fellowship recipient for the Alzheimer’s Imaging Consortium (AIC) in Boston, Massachusetts, on Saturday, July 13, 2013. The AIC pre-conference precedes the Alzheimer's Association International Conference and centers on development of neuroimaging methods and their clinical application to normal aging and dementias, including Alzheimer's disease.
- Dr. Derin Cobia awarded funding to attend fMRI Training Course at University of Michigan: Dr. Cobia was accepted into the NIH-funded University of Michigan fMRI training course directed by John Jonides, PhD. The training program will span two weeks from August 5th-16th 2013, and include topics on MR physics, study design, fMR signal processing, and network analysis.
- New publication with journal cover:
Khan, A. R., Wang, L., and Beg, M. F., 2013, Multistructure large deformation diffeomorphic brain registration: IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, v. 60, p. 544-53.
- New publication:
Turner, J. A., Calhoun, V. D., Michael, A., van Erp, T. G. M., Ehrlich, S., Segall, J. M., Gollub, R. L., Csernansky, J., Potkin, S. G., Ho, B.-C., Bustillo, J., Schulz, S. C., Fbirn, n., and Wang, L., 2012, Heritability of Multivariate Gray Matter Measures in Schizophrenia: Twin Research and Human Genetics, v. 15, p. 324-335.
- New publication:
Mamah, D., Harms, M. P., Barch, D., Styner, M., Lieberman, J. A., and Wang, L., 2012, Hippocampal shape and volume changes with antipsychotics in early stage psychotic illness: Frontiers in Schizophrenia, v. 3.
- Oct 2012, Dr. Wang as PI Subaward on Alzheimer Association Grant on ADNI2 Add-on Project:
Dr. Wang is working with Drs. Michael Weiner/Susanne Mueller (co-PIs, UCSF lead site), Dr. Paul Yushkevich (U Penn), and Dr. Koen van Leemput (Harvard) on a project entitled "ADNI 2 add-on project: Superior power of hippocampal subfield measurements compared to conventional hippocampal volumetry for the early diagnosis AD and prediction of AD related cognitive decline." This project is funded by the Alzheimer Association, aiming to use multiple approach to measure hippocampal subfields using a new high-resolution T2-weighted sequence to detect the earliest hippocampal manifestations of AD.
- Oct 5, 2012, MICCAI 2012 Workshop on Novel Imaging Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (NIBAD’12): Dr. Wang co-organized the MICCAI 2012 Workshop on Novel Imaging Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (NIBAD'12) along with Paul Yushkevich, PhD, Assistant Professor of Radiology at University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine and Sebastien Ourselin, PhD, Reader in Medical Image Computing at University College London Centre for Medical Image Computing Dementia Research Centre. The workshop, held on October 5, 2012 in Nice, France, included a traditional original research paper track with 21 papers spanning the range of topics including image segmentation, longutidinal imaging analysis, functional and diffusion imaging biomarkers, and validation. It also included a challenge component focused on measurement of longitudinal brain atrophy in AD, with 9 papers.
- Sep 2012, Dr. Wang Awarded NIH R01 on Hippocampal Predictors of Cognitive Impairment in Breast Cancer : Dr. Wang was awarded an NINR R01 grant for his project HippoPCI: Hippocampal Predictors of Cognitive Impairment in Breast Cancer. The project will use longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify predictors and mechanisms of cognitive impairment in breast cancer patients receiving hormonal treatment.
- Sep 2012, Dr. Lei Wang Awarded Ken and Ruth Davee Award: Dr. Wang, PhD was awarded the Ken and Ruth Davee Award for Innovative Investigations in Affective Disorders for his Neuroimaging Pilot Study Using an Animal Model of Major Depression.
- Sep 2012, Matthew Schroeder Awarded NIH NRSA T32: Matthew Schroeder was awarded an NIH NRSA Predoctoral Fellowship for the Training of Neuroscience in Human Cognition. His project focuses on identifying the neural regions responsible to acquisition and consolidation of a conditioned task in rabbits using manganese-enhanced MRI.
- Dr. Derin Cobia Awarded NIH NRSA T32: Dr. Cobia was awarded an NIH NRSA Postdoctoral Fellowship for the Training of Neuroscience in Human Cognition. His project focuses on using multimodal structural MRI, such as cortical thickness, subcortical shape deformation, and white matter tractography, to identify working memory circuits in schizophrenia, and evaluate their integrity in neuropsychologically near-normal and neuropsychologically impaired schizophrenia subjects.